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No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. 950 Metal-detected animal-brooches in the Urnes style Magnetogram of the geophysical research from 2002 Simplified interpretation of the magnetic anomalies Excavation of a burnt-down pit-house of late tenth-century date Digital model of the Kaupang area The extent of Blindheim’s (1956–74) and Skre’s (1999–2003) excavations in the settlement area at Kaupang House remains and plot division in the main excavation area 2000–2 A tentative reconstruction of the town in the mid-ninth century The hall at Lejre, tenth century Plan of the town of Ribe xi xxiii 33 59 61 64 68 69 71 72 78 80 81 83 95 95 96 102 104 105 106 107 108 113 116 117 119 122 128 –– I l l u s t r a t i o n s –– 8.6.1 8.7.1 8.7.2 8.8.1 8.8.2 8.9.1 9.1 9.2 9.3 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 17.1.1 18.1 18.2 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 23.3.1 24.1 24.2 24.3 24.4 24.5 24.6 24.7 27.2.1 27.2.2 27.3.1 27.3.2 27.3.3 27.3.4 28.1 28.2 28.3 ‘Ridanæs’, the Viking Age harbour at Fröjel, Gotland Plan of the excavated areas and Skt Nikolaj Bjerg Plan of the wooden church and adjoining churchyard The oldest map of Sigtuna, dating from 1636 The remains of buildings in the Urmakaren block in Sigtuna Imaginative animal in solid silver with necklace of gold found at Uppåkra Eidsborg hones and fragments of steatite vessels from Norway, found in Aggersbog, Denmark Tenth-century hoard of brass bars from Myrvälde, Gotland The distribution of the eighth–ninth-century Badorf-type ceramics Kufic dirhams found in a small hoard in Vestfold in south Norway Cut silver pennies of Anglo-Saxon origin found in the Viking world Danish penny issued for Cnut the Great Norwegian pennies from the 1050s and 1060s The central part of the Oseberg and Gokstad ships The Viking Ship Museum’s reconstruction of the longship Skuldelev 2 The beam/length index values for Scandinavian ship finds Reconstructed amidships sections of ships mentioned in the text A reconstruction of the vo˛lva þórbjorg’s costume and equipment ˙ Plan of the cult house at Borg and distribution of pig bones Gold figurine from Lunda Settlement distribution in southern Scandinavia, c. Stefan Brink: I would like to, first and foremost, thank my family, for accepting me as a (more than usual) mental absentee for several years, when ‘dad was working on the Viking book’.British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data The Viking world / edited by Stefan Brink; in collaboration with Neil Price. ad 800 A clay animal paw from Hjortö, Saltvik A reconstruction of the Oseberg ship burial A reconstruction of Birka chamber grave Bj.834 Sigurðr impaling the dragon Fafnir, Ramsund monument in Sweden Style E ornament on gilt-bronze harness-mounts from Broa, Gotland Picture stone from Ardre, Gotland Borre-style mounts Ornament on cup from Jelling, Jutland Mammen axe, both sides Picture stone from Vang, Oppland, Norway Portal of the wooden stave-church from Urnes, Norway Excavations in 1967–81 by York Archaeological Trust in Coppergate Iron coin-die for a St Peter’s penny, struck in York The Balladoole burial, Isle of Man Drawing of the high-status female found in a Christian graveyard at Peel, St Patrick’s Isle Ornament on memorial cross from Kirk Braddan, Isle of Man The remains of a pre-Norse round house and two other buildings at Braaid Skewsby, Yorkshire signpost Norfolk signpost Kettleshulme, Cheshire signpost xii 131 136 137 141 142 147 151 152 153 160 160 161 161 173 175 177 178 246 251 252 258 260 268 269 321 324 326 327 328 329 334 335 381 383 386 387 388 389 392 392 393 –– I l l u s t r a t i o n s –– 28.4 28.5 28.6 28.7 29.1 29.2 30.1 30.2 30.3 30.4 33.1.1 33.1.2 35.1 35.2 36.1 36.2 36.3 36.4 37.1 38.1 38.2 38.3 38.4 41.1 42.1.1 42.1.2 42.1.3 43.1 43.2 43.3 44.1 44.2 44.3 44.4 44.1.1 44.1.2 46.1 46.2 Skirpenbeck, Yorkshire signpost Ramnageo, Shetland signpost Duncansby, Caithness signpost Map showing areas where Scandinavian place names occur Early tenth-century silver arm-rings from Red Wharf Bay, Isle of Anglesey Tenth-century silver ingots and arm-ring from Llanbedrgoch, Anglesey Map showing principal sites mentioned in the text Structure 5 at Quoygrew, Orkney Distribution of Scottish Viking Age burials including grave goods A comb of indigenous ‘Pictish’ style from Buckquoy, Orkney Successive borders of Normandy and Scandinavian place-name distribution Rollo’s statue in Rouen Brooches and other ornaments characteristic of women’s dress in western Finland Ornaments from grave no. Mag., Curator, Føroya Fornminnissavn, Tórshavn, The Faroes. Secondly, all the authors, who have been extremely helpful and kind, xix –– P r e f a c e –– despite the very long process of producing this volume, and thirdly the publisher, Routledge, for their understanding position concerning the delays due to severe illnesses, movements between jobs and overseas, child births, and other academic commitments. (Oxon), Professor in Icelandic, Faculty of Humanities, Háskóli Íslands, Reykjavík, Iceland. of Archaeology, University of Aberdeen, Scotland; Docent in Archaeology, Dept. At present there is no single work that gathers the latest research from the complete spectrum of disciplines involved, and that brings together all the leading scholars of the field. of Scandinavian Languages, Uppsala University, Sweden. However, these books are not usually prepared with an academic audience in mind, and are understandably organised around particular collections of artefacts or the specific theme of an exhibition.Esler THE GREEK WORLD Edited by Anton Powell THE ROMAN WORLD Edited by John Wacher THE HINDU WORLD Edited by Sushil Mittal and Gene Thursby Forthcoming: THE OTTOMAN WORLD Edited by Christine Woodhead THE ELIZABETHAN WORLD Edited by Susan Doran and Norman Jones THE BYZANTINE WORLD Edited by Paul Stephenson THE ATLANTIC WORLD Edited by William O’Reilly THE VIKING WORLD Edited by Stefan Brink in collaboration with Neil Price First published 2008 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Routledge 270 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10016 This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2008. Wallace 434 Continental Europe and the Mediterranean 33 Scandinavia and the Continent in the Viking Age Johan Callmer (1) The Duchy of Normandy Jean Renaud (2) The Viking conquest of Brittany Neil Price 439 34 The Vikings in Spain, North Africa and the Mediterranean Neil Price 462 453 458 The Baltic 35 The Viking Age in Finland Torsten Edgren 470 36 The Vikings and the eastern Baltic Heiki Valk 485 viii –– C o n t e n t s –– Russia and the east 37 The Viking Rus and Byzantium Jonathan Shepard 38 The Vikings in the east Fjodor Androshchuk 39 The Vikings and Islam Egil Mikkelsen 40 Arabic sources on the Vikings J. Montgomery 496 517 543 550 The North Atlantic 41 The North Atlantic expansion Gísli Sigurðsson 42 Iceland Jón Viðar Sigurðsson (1) The Faroe Islands Símun V. of Scandinavian Languages, Uppsala University, Sweden. Paul Buckland, Ph D (Bham), formerly Professor of Environmental Archaeology, England, University of Bournemouth. Dr (Lund), Professor für Ur- und Frühgeschichte, Institut für Geschichtswissenschaften, Philosophische Fakultät I, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany; Docent in Archaeology, Dept. xv –– C o n t r i b u t o r s –– Clare Downham, Ph D (Cantab.), Lecturer in Celtic, School of Language and Literature, University of Aberdeen, Scotland. of Anthropology and Folkloristics, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland. During this period we both have also moved between not only universities but also countries several times.“To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s collection of thousands of e Books please go to Bookstore.uk.” Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business © 2008 Stefan Brink and Neil Price for selection and editorial matter; individual chapters, their contributors All rights reserved. Arge 562 571 579 43 The Norse settlements in Greenland Jette Arneborg (1) The North Atlantic farm: an environmental view Paul Buckland 588 44 The discovery of Vinland Birgitta Wallace (1) Norse and natives in the eastern Arctic Patricia Sutherland 604 598 613 PA R T I I I : S C A N D I N AV I A E N T E R S T H E E U R O P E A N S TA G E The coming of Christianity 45 Christianisation and the emergence of the early Church in Scandinavia Stefan Brink 46 Runestones and the Christian missions Anne-Sofie Gräslund and Linn Lager (1) The material culture of the Christianisation Anne-Sofie Gräslund 621 629 639 The development of nation states (ríki) 47 The creation of Norway Claus Krag 48 The emergence of Denmark and the reign of Harald Bluetooth Else Roesdahl ix 645 652 –– C o n t e n t s –– (1) Cnut the Great and his empire Niels Lund 665 49 The emergence of Sweden Thomas Lindkvist 668 Index 675 x I L L U S T R AT I O N S 3.1 6.1 6.2 6.3 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.1.1 7.1.2 7.1.3 8.1 8.1.1 8.1.2 8.1.3 8.2.1 8.2.2 8.2.3 8.2.4 8.2.5 8.2.6 8.3.1 8.3.2 8.3.3 8.3.4 8.4.1 8.5.1 Map of the Viking world A schematic picture of Sámi culture The settlement district of Markim-Orkesta in Uppland, Sweden The settlement district of Ockelbo in Gästrikland, Sweden The distribution of place names containing the name of the god Týr Reconstruction of a ‘Trelleborg house’ from Fyrkat, northern Jutland, Denmark Reconstruction of a one-aisled house excavated at Gotland, Sweden Farms in the Viking Age village at Vorbasse, Jutland, Denmark The villages of Enerum, Öland, and Tällberg, Dalarna, Sweden The archaeological status of the Tissø area in the Viking period Plan showing the layout of the manor in Phase 3 Pendants depicting valkyries of the Norse mythology Map showing the towns and proto-towns discussed in this chapter Aerial view of Birka Map of Birka Birka jetty Map of Hedeby with all excavation trenches between 19 Map showing finds of early medieval coins dated after c. of Archaeology and Ancient History, University of Lund, Sweden. Dr (Stockholm), Associate Professor of Cultural Geography, Section for Social Geography and Ethnology, Gotland University College, Visby, Sweden. art., Curator in Prehistoric Archaeology, Roskilde Museum, Denmark. The burden of the editing – that is, the primary work on the volume – has therefore been shouldered by Stefan.THANKSGIVING: THE HAPPIEST SAD DAY OF THE YEAR The saddest thing I ever saw: a small, elderly woman dining alone at Morrison’s Cafeteria, on Thanksgiving Day. Oh there are many other sadnesses you can find if you look hard enough, in this variegated world of ours, but a diner alone on Thanksgiving Day makes you feel really fortunate, guilty, smug, relieved, tearful, grateful…it brings you up short and makes you time-travel to the pockets of joy and cheer you experienced in earlier days. And those lucky turkeys were lucky because nobody ever thought of eating them except at Thanksgiving and Christmas. We’ll be trying that much harder, next year, to not get blind-sided by the best holiday of the year, Thanksgiving being the only holiday you don’t have to give gifts or reciprocate gifts or strain to find the correct gifts. Nobody ever thought about cranberries the other 364 days! Now, back into the time machine of just a few years ago. Other family and relatives are either dead or gone, or just plain tied up with their own lives in other states, doing things other than having Thanksgiving Dinner with me. My brother, Tim, my friends Tim Baer and Don Henderson and I decide that we will have to spend Thanksgiving Dinner together, since each of us is bereft of wife or playmate or relative, this particular holiday this particular year. So, we wind up at Morrison’s Cafeteria, eating alone together, going through the line and picking out steamed-particle-board turkey, canned cranberries, thin gravy, boxed mashed potatoes and some bakery goods whose source cannot easily be determined. But we laugh at our situation and each other, tell jokes, cut up a bit, and thank our lucky stars that this one Thanksgiving Dinner is surely just a fluke.
xvii –– C o n t r i b u t o r s –– Dagfinn Skre, Dr Phil. of Linguistics and Scandinavian Studies, University of Oslo, Norway. Dr (Ups.), Lecturer in History of Religions, University College Gävle, Sweden.xx A B B R E V I AT I O N S AM Ar Da DR EHR Goth Gs Ir KL KVHAA Lat MW NIy R Norw ODa OE Ög OHG OIr Öl ON OScand Arnamagnæan manuscript collection (see and Arabic Danish Danmarks runeindskrifter, 3 vols, L. Moltke (eds), Copenhagen (1941–2) The English Historical Review (Oxford University Press) Gothic Gästriklands runinskrifter (SRI 15), Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International (1981) Irish Kulturhistoriskt lexikon för nordisk medeltid från vikingatid till reformationstid 1–21, Malmö: Allhem (1956–78) Kungliga Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien/The Royal Swedish Academy of Letters, History and Antiquities, Stockholm Latin Medieval Welsh Norges innskrifter med de yngre runer, M. In each case we have tried to approach the leading international scholars in the relevant field.