Validating informal and non formal learning
Documenting all skills and competences thus becomes relevant.
On a social level, many limes it is those marginalised citizens or those at risk of poverty who often do not possess formal qualifications but learn through their life and work experiences.
They, too, begin with the organizational form of learning and call those learning processes informal which are non-formal or not formally organized and are not financed by institutions (Watkins/Marsick, p. An example for a wider approach is Livingstone's definition which is oriented towards autodidactic and self-directed learning and places special emphasis on the self-definition of the learning process by the learner (Livingstone 1999, p. As noted above, informal learning is often confused with non-formal learning.
Non-formal learning has been used to often describe organized learning outside of the formal education system, either being short-term, voluntary, and having, few if any, prerequisites.
The term is often conflated, however, with non-formal learning, and self-directed learning.
It is widely used in the context of corporate training and education in relation to return on investment (ROI), or return on learning (ROL).
Marsick and Watkins take up this approach and go one step further in their definition.The interaction of a Navajo girl assisting her mother weaving and who eventually becomes a master weaver herself illustrates how the child's presence and the availability of these activities allow the child to learn through observation.Children start at the periphery, observing and imitating those around them, before moving into the center of activities under supervision and guidance.It is also widely used when referring to science education, in relation to citizen science, or informal science education.
The conflated meaning of informal and non-formal learning explicates mechanisms of learning that organically occur outside the realm of traditional instructor-led programs, e.g., reading self-selected books, participating in self-study programs, navigating performance support materials and systems, incidental skills practice, receptivity of coaching or mentoring, seeking advice from peers, or participation in communities of practice, to name a few.As stated on the non-formal learning page, non-formal learning can be seen in various structured learning situations, such as swimming lessons, community-based sports programs and conference style seminars. (2007) state: "Informal learning, Schugurensky (2000) suggests, has its own internal forms that are important to distinguish in studying the phenomenon.