Validating a test to measure depth of vocabulary knowledge Sex cam roulette women
Contextual factors include the importance of the unknown word to comprehension of the text (Brown, 1993); the characteristics of the word and the text containing the word, as well as the nature of the comprehension task (Fraser, 1999; Paribakht & Wesche, 1999); the length of the text (Haynes, 1993); the availability of clear contextual cues (Dubin & Olshtain, 1993); and the semantic richness of the context (Li, 1988).
Learner-related or reader-based factors include the learner's previous L2 learning experience (Paribakht & Wesche); the learner's degree of attention to the details in the text (Frantzen, 2003; Nassaji, 2003), and as his or her preconceptions about the possible meaning of the word (Frantzen); the size of the learner's receptive vocabulary knowledge (Laufer, 1997), depth of vocabulary knowledge (Nassaji, 2004; Qian, 1998, 2005), procedural knowledge (Ellis, 1994), sight vocabulary and background knowledge of the passage or familiarity with the topic (Pulido, 2007); the learner's ability to make use of extratextual cues (Haastrup, 1991); the level of mental effort involved in the task (Fraser); and the effect of the learner's native language on the process (Paribakht, 2005).
Studies on lexical inferencing have also been conducted to identify and classify the knowledge sources and contextual clues used by first-language (L1) and L2 readers in processing unknown words (Ames, 1966; Carton, 1971; Haastrup, 1991; Paribakht & Wesche, 1999).
One of these knowledge sources has been found to be vocabulary knowledge.
In order to define knowledge of a lexical item, in recent decades, various but generally complementary frameworks have been developed (Nation, 2001; Qian, 1998, 1999; Read, 1993; Wesche & Paribakht, 1996).
Breadth of vocabulary knowledge is defined as vocabulary size, or the number of words for which a learner has at least some minimum knowledge of meaning (Nation, 2001).
Various types of assessment tools with varied formats have been used to measure this dimension of vocabulary knowledge, including tests that require the learner to identify a synonym or definition for a particular word, to translate a word into L1, or to use checklists (Wesche & Paribakht).
This study thus provides empirical evidence that vocabulary knowledge is an important factor for successful listening comprehension in EFL.