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As Johnson says; History that traces development inevitably includes facts not d i r e c t l y related to the present. In tracing development, textbooks written by scholars aim at organic continuity; the functional approach l i m i t s development to special phases d i r e c t l y suggested by the present and treats them separately, assuming f o r each a s e l f -sufficiency that renders unnecessary any general exploration of the past.7 This programme i s based on such a functional approach. Strong, The Early Modern World (Toronto: Clarke, Irwin, 1961). History i s the development of c i v i l i z a t i o n i n a desirable d i r e c t i o n , towards a higher l e v e l of c i v i l i z a t i o n . For the rest, the topics are p o l i t i c a l and diplomatic. Thus, i n Chapter 12, "The Eastern Ques-tion, 1815-1878," there i s a detailed account of the causes, events and results of the Crimean War and developments i n the Balkans to the Congress of Berlin. 1 7 Thus, i n t h i s interpretation, the Church played the central r o l e i n the creation of medieval c i v i l i z a t i o n — c o n v e r t i n g the barbarian t r i b e s to C h r i s t i a n i t y , counteracting the violence of feudal l i f e while fostering 14. Germany I s United Around Prussia Chapter 3» Germany Makes Contributions i n Culture and Science Chapter 4. The margins of the pages contain a running commentary on the narrative indicating the state of human righ t s at a p a r t i c u l a r time. The text defines them as "our c i v i l and r e l i g i o u s l i b e r t i e s , and . The f i n a l u n i t — o n China and J a p a n — i s an appendage to what i s e s s e n t i a l l y a history of the major European nations.
The Concepts of Nationalism and Liberalism (Great B r i t a i n , France, America) 4. The Application to a Modern Situation of the Concepts Learned i n t h i s Unit IV. Together with knowledge from geography, c i v i c s , sociology and economics, these elements are used "to explain the contemporary world." They are scattered through-out the courses so that, for the most part, h i s t o r i c a l continuity i s l o s t . 98 SCOPE AND ORGANIZATION The scope of the history i n time i s from 1500 A. to the present, with the main emphasis on the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. A l l this was revealed by God to Moses at a later time, for in very early days probably no one could write.^ Referring to the ancient peoples and their contributions to the growth of civilization, the text says: The Hebrews, who lived in the midst of these other peoples, alone preserved the belief in one true God. To the generally accepted facts of the place and time of his birth, l i f e and death are added items from the dogma of the Church: He was nailed to a cross and suffered death. This lends the whole book a strongly inspirational tone, which i s accentuated by the Ibid.. Unlike most other world history courses, i t carries the story only up to the outbreak of the F i r s t World War. Humanism Changes Man's Perspective Unit V I I I . Planer, World History for a Better World (Milwaukee: Bruce, 1958). The Protestant Revolt Affects the Status Quo Chapter 3» The Catholic Reaction Limits the Spread of Protestantism Unit IX. "In studying hist o r y , we might think of the p o l i t i c a l leaders as the main characters, sometimes noble, but a l l too often i g -noble." The noble ones are those who, l i k e Louis IX of France, was "guided by the p r i n c i p l e s of equity and j u s t i c e , . The actions of autocratic r u l e r s are not to be understood i n the degree to which they repressed or advanced the cause of human ri g h t s . A casual knowledge of actual i n s t i t u t i o n s i s not suf-f i c i e n t .
S c i e n t i f i c Thinking i n Geography i n the Renaissance Period 2 . The Effect of Exploration and Early Colonization upon the Parent C i v i l i z a t i o n 4. 125 the ideals of chivalry, unifying individual nations and at the same time uniting the nations, preserving learning, educating the young, and caring for the sick and needy. We t a l k i n our time of our c i v i l and r e l i g i o u s l i b e r t i e s and of our property r i g h t s as though man had always had them. These are, for the most part, l i s t s of names of famous writers, a r t i s t s , or s c i e n t i s t s , with comments on certain outstanding individuals. I t leads to such statements, again to take an example from B r i t i s h history as: "Though the English people were the f i r s t to r e j e c t autocracy, they have moved only slowly towards democracy" and, " U n t i l the Reform Acts of the nineteenth century, 57 England was a r i s t o c r a t i c — n o t democratic," both of which are not so much true or untrue as meaningless.