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For these reasons, much of what is thought of by English-speakers and, to a lesser extent, by non-English-speaking Europeans as "secular Jewish culture" is, in essence, the Jewish cultural movement that evolved in Central and Eastern Europe, and subsequently brought to North America by immigrants.
During the 1940s, the Holocaust uprooted and destroyed most of the Jewish communities living in much of Europe.
Judaism guides its adherents in both practice and belief, so that it has been called not only a religion, but an orthopraxy.
Jewish culture in its etymological meaning retains linkage to the Jewish people's land of origin, the people named for the Kingdom of Judah, study of Jewish texts, practice of community charity, and Jewish history.
(This is particularly true for Orthodox Judaism.) Gary Tobin, head of the Institute for Jewish and Community Research, said of traditional Jewish culture: The dichotomy between religion and culture doesn't really exist. So many of our traditions inherently contain aspects of culture.
Every religious attribute is filled with culture; every cultural act filled with religiosity. Look at the Passover Seder — it's essentially great theater.
Today, the subject of Jewish secularization is taught, and researched, at many North American and Israeli universities, including Harvard, Tel Aviv University, UCLA, Temple University and City University of New York which have significant Jewish alumni.
This, in combination with the creation of the State of Israel and the consequent Jewish exodus from Arab lands, resulted in a further geographic shift.