Comoy39s pipe dating being the rebound in dating
Based on Harrington's table, when does this distribution suggest that Verysignificantsite was mosth eavily occupied?
he dating of a pipe fragment relies on assessing a whole range of variables to do with its fabric, manufacturing techniques, bowl form, style, finish, marks and decoration.
There are always exceptions but, in broad terms, stems can usually be allocated to one of three general date ranges by assessing their form, stem bore, fabric and finish.
Note that stem bores are still recorded in 64ths of an inch, so as to allow them to be compared with previous records and for the data to be used with stem bore dating techniques developed in the USA (see ‘stem bores’ below).
The clay pipe industry expanded rapidly as tobacco smoking gained popularity in both England and America. Harrington studied the thousands of pipe stems excavated at Jamestown and other colonial Virginia sites, noticing a definite relationship between the diameter of the pipe stem bore—or hole—and the age of the pipe of which it had been part.
Historical archeologists excavating English colonial sites often find pieces of white clay smoking pipes on their sites. The earliest pipes, dating to about 1600, had stems with 9/64-inch diameter bores.
Burnishing was rarely used, although it continued to be a characteristic of pipes from the Shropshire industry and on some high quality pieces from elsewhere.Burnishing was still used in some areas, but very rarely in the far south west, the south east and East Anglia.Local clays with inclusions were rarely used after about 1710.They can be used to indicate whether a context group is likely to contain residual material, or whether it represents a coherent and potentially tightly dated group.
They can also be used to check any dates provided by associated bowl forms, marks or decoration, which can be especially useful for smaller contexts where only a few such pieces are present.
Stems were straight until the late eighteenth century when curved varieties were introduced.